Sunday, October 17, 2010

Important Dates in Philippine History and Contemporary Times

Enumerated below are some of the significant dates in the Philippines where notable events occurred that shaped the Philippines to what it is today. It is arranged not consecutively by year but by months.

January 1 - New Year's Day, a holiday in the Philippines; revelry starts on the night of December 31.

January 20, 2001 - Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo replaced President Joseph Estrada via a military-backed people's revolt.

January 23, 1899 - The First Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos, Bulacan.

February 5, 1899 - Emilio Aguinaldo, president of the First Philippine Republic, declared war against the United States.

February 17, 1872- Three Filipino priests - Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora - were executed in Bagumbayan.

February 18, 1565 - Miguel Lopez de Legazpi landed in Samar; and took possession of the island for Spain.

February 22-26, 1986 - Filipinos launched the so-called People Power revolution that led to the ouster of long-time Philippine strongman, US-backed dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos.

March 11, 1942 - General Douglas MacArthur fled from the Philippines; vowed to return.

March 16, 1521 - Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippines; landed in Samar.

March 23, 1901 - President Emilio Aguinaldo surrendered to American forces in Palanan, Isabela; later became a turncoat and took an allegiance to the Americans.

March 29, 1942 - Luis Taruk organized the Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon (Hukbalahap), an underground guerilla movement.

March 31, 1521 - The first mass was held in Limasawa Island.

April 9, 1942 - Bataan fell to Japanese forces.

April 11, 1899 - By virtue of Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the US; sold for US$20 million.

April 26, 1898 - The United States and Spain declared war against each other over the Philippines, Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico.

April 27, 1521 - Battle of Mactan; Magellan was killed by men of Lapu-Lapu.

April 30, 1937 - Filipino women won the right to vote during a plebiscite.

May 1, 1913 - The first Labor Day was celebrated in the country.

May 1, 2001 - Some 20,000 supporters of deposed President Joseph Estrada attacked Malacanang Palace in what is now known as a mob rebellion but supporters insists as a popular revolt following similar EDSA uprisings in the past.

May 6, 1899 - The first municipal election was held in Baliuag, Bulacan under American supervision.

May 6, 1942 - American and Filipino forces in Corregidor Island surrendered to Japanese forces.

May 10, 1897 - True patriot and hero Andres Bonifacio was executed at Mount Buntis in Maragondon, Cavite by men of turncoat Emilio Aguinaldo, under the encouragement of the American forces.

May 14, 1935 - Filipinos ratified the 1935 Constitution.

May 19, 1571 - Miguel Lopez de Legazpi defeated Rajah Sulayman; claimed Manila for Spain.

June 10, 1647 - Dutch fleet attacked Cavite; later lost to Spaniards.

June 12, 1898 - Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Philippines' independence from Spain, its colonial master for 333 years. The US colonizers after taking over the Spaniards then declared the independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946.

June 19, 1861 - Jose Rizal was born in Calamba, Laguna. Jose Rizal would later be declared as the National Hero of the Philippines. Alternate national hero to other patriotic Filipinos include Andres Bonifacio, who would rather take up arms to gain independence from Spanish and later American colonizers.

July 4, 1901 - William Howard Taft became the first American civil governor in the country.

July 4, 1946 - The United States declared the independence of the Philippines. This day, after reverting Independence Day to be celebrated in June 12, has been celebrated as the Filipino-American Friendship Day instead.

August 8, 1967 - The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) was established, with the Philippines as a founding member.

August 21, 1971 - A bomb explosion disrupted a meeting of the Liberal Party politicians at Plaza Miranda in Quiapo, Manila.

August 21, 1983 - Benigno Aquino on his return from exile in the US was shot dead at the airport reportedly by Rolando Galman.

August 23, 1896 - The Katipuneros led by Andres Bonifacio met at Pugad Lawin in Balintawak and tore their cedulas, in defiance to Spanish authority.

August 23, 1901 - The US Ship Thomas, with 600 American teachers on board, arrived in Manila. These teachers were later called Thomasites.

August 25 - National Heroes Day, a national holiday in the Philippines.

August 30, 1951 - The RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty was approved under the Quirino administration.

September 21, 1972 - President Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial Law; lifted it on January 17, 1981.

September 29, 1901 - A US general ordered his troops to "shoot anything that moves" in what is now known as Balangiga massacre in Samar.

October 4, 1762 - British forces laid  siege to Intramuros; Spaniards later reclaimed the Walled City.

October 20, 1944 - General Douglas MacArthur returned to the Philippines via Palo, Leyte.

November 1 - A holiday; All Saint's Day where most catholic Filipinos pay homage to their departed relatives.

November 1, 1542 - Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the archipelago Felipinas after King Felipe II of Spain.

November 1, 1897 - Emilio Aguinaldo and his supporters established the Biak na Bato Republic.

November 30, 1863 - Andres Bonifacio was born in Manila.

December 10, 1898 - The US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris; the former acquired the Philippines from the latter for US$20 million.

December 10, 1941 - Japanese forces attacked Manila; occupied the city on January 2, 1942.

December 14, 1897 - The revolutionary government led by Emilio Aguinaldo signed a peace pact with the Spanish government. Aguinaldo went to Hong Kong.

December 25 - Christmas Day

December 30, 1896 - Jose Rizal was executed in Bagumbayan. This day is celebrated annually and is a national holiday.

December 30, 1937 - President Manuel L. Quezon declared Tagalog as the basis of the national language.

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